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Choose for your travel destination the most beautiful cities, mountains, and lakes of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Sarajevo, Mostar, Blagaj, Bjelašnica, Igman. We provide you with the accommodation, transportation and our comprehensive customer commitment.

Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with an estimated population of 369,534. The Sarajevo metropolitan area, including Sarajevo, East Sarajevo and surrounding municipalities, is home to 688,354 inhabitants. Moreover, it is also the capital of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, the capital of the Republika Srpska entity, and the center of the Sarajevo Canton.

Nestled within the greater Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of Southeastern Europe and the Balkans. Sarajevo is the leading political, social and cultural center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a prominent center of culture in the Balkans, with its region-wide influence in entertainment, media, fashion, and the arts. The city is famous for its traditional cultural and religious diversity, with adherents of Islam, Orthodoxy, Judaism and Catholicism coexisting there for centuries. Due to its long and rich history of religious and cultural variety, Sarajevo is sometimes called the “Jerusalem of Europe” or “Jerusalem of the Balkans”. It was, until late in the 20th century, the only major European city to have a mosque, Catholic church, Orthodox church and synagogue within the same neighborhood. A regional center in education, the city is also home to the Balkans’ first institution of tertiary education in the form of an Islamic polytechnic called the Saraybosna Osmanlı Medrese, today part of the University of Sarajevo.

Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century. Sarajevo has attracted international attention several times throughout its history. In 1885, Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, following San Francisco. In 1914, it was the site of the assassination of the Archduke of Austria that sparked World War I. Seventy years later, it hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics. For nearly four years, from 1992 to 1996, the city suffered the longest siege of a city in the history of modern warfare (1,425 days long) during the Bosnian War. Sarajevo has been undergoing post-war reconstruction, and is the fastest growing city in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The travel guide series, Lonely Planet, has named Sarajevo as the 43rd best city in the world, and in December 2009 listed Sarajevo as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010. In 2011, Sarajevo was nominated to be the European Capital of Culture in 2014 and will be hosting the European Youth Olympic Festival in 2017. Sarajevo is also a metropolis due to being the most important and influential city in the whole country.

Mostar is a city and municipality in southern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Inhabited by 113,169 people, it is the most important city in the Herzegovina region, its cultural capital, and the center of the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation. Mostar is situated on the Neretva River and is the fifth-largest city in the country. Mostar was named after the bridge keepers (mostari) who in the medieval times guarded the Stari Most (Old Bridge) over the Neretva. The Old Bridge, built by the Ottomans in the 16th century, is one of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s most recognizable landmarks, and is considered one of the most exemplary pieces of Islamic architecture in the Balkans.

Human settlements on the river Neretva, between the Hum Hill and the Velež Mountain, have existed since prehistory, as witnessed by discoveries of fortified enceintes and cemeteries. Evidence of Roman occupation was discovered beneath the present town. As far as medieval Mostar goes, although the Christian basilicas of late antiquity remained in use, few historical sources were preserved and not much is known about this period. The name of Mostar was first mentioned in a document dating from 1474, taking its name from the bridge-keepers (mostari); this refers to the existence of a wooden bridge from the market on the left bank of the river which was used by traders, soldiers, and other travelers. During this time it was also the seat of a kadiluk (district with a regional judge). Since Mostar was on the trade route between the Adriatic and the mineral-rich regions of central Bosnia, the settlement began to spread to the right bank of the river.

In 1468 Mostar came under Ottoman rule and the urbanization of the settlement began. Following the unwritten oriental rule, the town was organized into two distinct areas: čaršija, the crafts and commercial centre of the settlement, and mahala or a residential area. In 1468 Mostar acquired the name Köprühisar, meaning fortress at the bridge, at the centre of which was a cluster of 15 houses.

The town was fortified between the years 1520 and 1566, and the wooden bridge was rebuilt in stone. The stone bridge, the Old Bridge (Stari Most), was erected in 1566 on the orders of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman ruler. Later becoming the city’s symbol, the Old Bridge (Stari Most) is one of the most important structures of the Ottoman era and perhaps Bosnia’s most recognizable architectural piece, and was designed by Mimar Hayruddin, a student and apprentice of the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. In the late 16th century, Mostar was the chief administrative city for the Ottoman Empire in the Herzegovina region. The Stari Most bridge: 28 meters long and 20 meters high (90′ by 64′), quickly became a wonder in its own time. The famous traveler Evliya Çelebi wrote in the 17th century that: the bridge is like a rainbow arch soaring up to the skies, extending from one cliff to the other. …I, a poor and miserable slave of Allah, have passed through 16 countries, but I have never seen such a high bridge. It is thrown from rock to rock as high as the sky.

The Austro-Hungarian Empire absorbed Mostar in 1878 and it ruled there until the aftermath of World War I in 1918. During this period, Mostar was recognized as the unofficial capital of all of Herzegovina. The first church in the city of Mostar, a Serbian Orthodox Church, was built in 1834 during Ottoman rule. In 1881 the town became the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mostar-Duvno and in 1939, it became a part of the Banovina of Croatia. During World War II Mostar was also an important city in the fascist Independent State of Croatia. After World War II, Mostar developed a production of plastics, tobacco, bauxite, wine, aircraft and aluminium products. Several dams (Grabovica, Salakovac, Mostar) were built in the region to harness the hydroelectric power of the Neretva. The city was a major industrial and tourist center and prospered economically during the time of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Konjic is a town and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in northern Herzegovina, around 50 kilometres (31 mi) southwest of Sarajevo. It is a mountainous, heavily wooded area, and is 268 m (879 ft) above sea level. The municipality extends on both sides of the Neretva River. The town of Konjic, housed about a third of the total municipality population.

The city is one of the oldest permanent settlements in Bosnia, dating back almost 4000 years; the city in its current incarnation arising as an important town in the late 14th century. Today, the population of Konjic municipality is estimated at 26,000 people.

Konjijc hosts a Biennial of Contemporary Art since 2011, called “D-0 ARK Underground” which is located in ARK.[6] The project, which the Council of Europe called the best cultural event in 2011, was curated by Petar Cukovic, Branislav Dimitrijevic in 2011 and Branko Franceschi and Bashak Shenove in 2013. The Neretva is largest karst river in the Dinaric Alps in the entire eastern part of the Adriatic basin, which belongs to the Adriatic river watershed. The total length is 230 km (140 mi), of which 208 km (129 mi) are in Bosnia and Herzegovina, while the final 22 km (14 mi) are in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County of Croatia.

The municipality of Konjic includes at least half of the area of the Upper Neretva (Bosnian: Gornja Neretva), which is the upper course of the Neretva river.

Geographically and hydrologically the Neretva is divided into three sections. The upper course of the Neretva river is simply called the Upper Neretva (Bosnian: Gornja Neretva), and includes a vast area around the Neretva, numerous streams and well-springs, three major glacial lakes near the river (and even more lakes, outside the municipality of Konjic, scattered across the mountains of Treskavica and Zelengora in the wider area of the Upper Neretva), one artificial lake (Jablaničko), mountains and forests, and native flora and fauna. All this natural heritage together with the cultural heritage of the Upper Neretva, represent rich and valuable resources of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as Europe. The Upper Neretva has water of Class I purity and is almost certainly the coldest river water in the world, often as low as 7–8 °C (45–46 °F) in the summer months.

Blagaj is a village-town (kasaba) in the south-eastern region of the Mostar basin, in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It stands at the edge of Bišće plain and is one of the most valuable mixed urban and rural structures in Bosnia and Herzegovina, distinguished from other similar structures in its urban layout.

Blagaj was most likely named for its mild weather patterns since “blaga” in Bosnian means “mild”.

Blagaj is situated at the spring of the Buna river and a historical tekke (tekija or Dervish monastery). The Blagaj Tekija was built around 1520, with elements of Ottoman architecture and Mediterranean style and is considered a national monument.

Vrelo Bune is the source of the Buna river is a strong karstic spring. The river flows west for approximately 9 kilometres and joins the Neretva near the village Buna. The historic site of the Old Blagaj Fort (Stjepan grad), on the hill above Blagaj, was the seat of Herzegovinian nobleman, Stjepan Vukčić, and the birthplace of Bosnian queen Katarina Kosača-Kotromanić.

Jablaničko Lake (Bosnian: Jablaničko jezero) is a large artificially-formed lake on the Neretva river, right below Konjic where the Neretva briefly expands into a wide valley. The river provided much fertile, agricultural land before the lake flooded most of the valley.

The lake was created in 1953 after construction of a high gravitational hydroelectric dam near Jablanica in central Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The lake has an irregular elongated shape. Its width varies along its length. The lake is a popular vacation destination in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Swimming, boating and especially fishing are popular activities on the lake. There are 13 types of fish in the lake’s ecosystem. Many weekend cottages have been built along the shores of the lake.

Počitelj is a village in the Čapljina municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in the Herzegovina-Neretva Canton in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The historic site of Počitelj is located on the left bank of the river Neretva, on the main Mostar to Metković road, and it is about 30 km. to the south of Mostar.

The village is built in a natural karst amphiteatre along the Neretva river.

During the Middle Ages, Počitelj was considered the administrative centre and centre of governance of Dubrava župa (county), while its westernmost point gave it major strategic importance. It is believed that the fortified town along with its attendant settlements were built by Bosnia’s King Stjepan Tvrtko I in 1383. The walled town of Počitelj evolved in the period from the 16th to the 18th centuries. Architecturally, the stone-constructed parts of the town are a fortified complex, in which two stages of evolution are evident: medieval, and Ottoman.

Kravice is a waterfall on the Trebižat River in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is 10 kilometres (6 mi) south of Ljubuški and 40 kilometres (25 mi) south of Mostar. Its height is about 25 metres (80 ft) and the radius of the lake in the base of the waterfall is 120 metres (390 ft). Kravice is a popular swimming and picnic area and, during the summer, it is frequently visited by tourists from Mostar, Medjugorje and Dubrovnik.

The Kravice Falls area also has a little cafe, a rope swing, a picnic area, and a place to camp. The best time of year for visiting is during the springtime when the fall is at its fullest and the arid landscape turns a bright green. During the high season, various restaurants in the vicinity of the waterfalls mostly offer grilled dishes and fish specialties. Near the Kravice Falls is also a small grotto with stalactites made of calcium carbonate, an old mill and a sailing ship.

Dubrovnik ([dǔbroːʋniːk] ( also known by other names) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea, in the region of Dalmatia. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean Sea, a seaport and the center of Dubrovnik-Neretva County. Its total population is 42,615 (census 2011). In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

The prosperity of the city was historically based on maritime trade; as the capital of the maritime Republic of Ragusa, it achieved a high level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries, as it became notable for its wealth and skilled diplomacy.

The beginning of modern tourism is associated with the construction of the Hotel Imperial in Dubrovnik in 1897.[citation needed] According to CNNGo, Dubrovnik is among the 10 best preserved medieval walled cities in the world. Although it was demilitarised in the 1970s to protect it from war, in 1991, after the breakup of Yugoslavia, it was besieged by the Serb and Montenegrin soldiers gathered in the Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA) for seven months and suffered significant damage from shelling.

Split (Croatian pronunciation: [splît] ) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea, centred on the Roman Palace of the Emperor Diocletian. Spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings, Split’s greater area includes the neighboring seaside towns as well. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is a link to numerous Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula.

Split is one of the oldest cities in the area. While it is traditionally considered just over 1,700 years old counting from the construction of Diocletian’s Palace in 305 CE, archaeological research relating to the original founding of the city as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 4th century BCE establishes the urban history of the area as being several centuries older. The city turned into a prominent settlement around 650 AD, when it became successor to the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona: as after the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Byzantine vassal, the Republic of Venice, and the Croatian Kingdom, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the king of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities.

Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Eventually, its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1796, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, and in 1809, after the Treaty of Schönbrunn, it was included directly in the French Empire, as part of the Illyrian Provinces. After Napoleon’s defeat in 1814, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. During World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Federal Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991 Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.

Travnik (Bosnian pronunciation: [trâːʋniːk]) is a town and municipality in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, 90 kilometres (56 miles) west of Sarajevo. It is the capital of the Central Bosnia Canton, and is located in the Travnik Municipality. Travnik today has some 16,534 residents, with a municipality population that is probably close to 57,543 people. It was the capital city of the governors of Bosnia from 1699 to 1850, and has a cultural heritage dating from that period. Although there is evidence of some settlement in the region dating back to the Bronze Age, the true history of Travnik begins during the first few centuries AD. Dating from this time there are numerous indications of Roman settlement in the region, including graves, forts, the remains of various other structures, early Christian basilicas, etc. In the city itself, Roman coins and plaques have been found. Some writing found indicates the settlement is closely connected to the known Roman colony in modern-day Zenica, 30 km (19 mi) away.

In the Middle Ages the Travnik area was known as the župa Lašva province of the medieval Bosnian Kingdom. The area is first mentioned by Bela IV of Hungary in 1244. Travnik itself was one of a number of fortified towns in the region, with its fortress Kaštel becoming today’s old town sector. The city itself is first mentioned by the Ottomans during their conquest of nearby Jajce.

After the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia in the 15th century, much of the local population converted to Islam. The city quickly grew into one of the more important settlements in the region, as authorities constructed mosques, marketplaces, and various infrastructure. During 1699 when Sarajevo was set afire by soldiers of Field-Marshal Prince Eugene of Savoy, Travnik became the capital of the Ottoman province of Bosnia and residence of the Bosnian viziers. The city became an important center of government in the whole Western frontier of the empire, and consulates were established by the governments of France and Austria-Hungary. The period of Austrian occupation brought westernization and industry to Travnik, but also a reduction of importance. While cities such as Banja Luka, Sarajevo, Tuzla, and Zenica grew rapidly, Travnik changed so little that during 1991 it had a mere 30,000 or so people, with 70,000 in the entire municipality. A large fire started by a spark from a locomotive in September 1903 destroyed most of the towns buildings and homes, leaving only some hamlets and the fortress untouched. The cleanup and rebuilding took several years. From 1929 to 1941, Travnik was part of the Drina Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During the Bosnian War, the town mostly escaped damage from conflict with Serbian forces, but the area experienced fighting between local Bosniak and Croat factions before the Washington Agreement was signed in 1994. After the war, Travnik was made the capital of the Central Bosnia Canton.

Jajce is a city and municipality located in the central part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Bosanska Krajina region. It is part of the Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity. It is on the crossroads between Banja Luka, Mrkonjić Grad and Donji Vakuf, on the confluence of the rivers Pliva and Vrbas.
Jajce was first built in the 14th century and served as the capital of the independent Kingdom of Bosnia during its time. The town has gates as fortifications, as well as a castle with walls which lead to the various gates around the town. Skenderbeg Mihajlović besieged Jajce in 1501, but without success because he was defeated by Ivaniš Korvin assisted by Zrinski, Frankopan, Karlović and Cubor. When the Bosnian kingdom fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1463, Jajce was taken by the Ottomans but was retaken next year by Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus. About 10–20 kilometres from Jajce lies the Komotin Castle and town area which is older but smaller than Jajce. It is believed the town of Jajce was previously Komotin but was moved after the Black Death.

During this period, Queen Catherine restored the Saint Mary’s Church in Jajce, today the oldest church in town. Eventually, in 1527, Jajce became the last Bosnian town to fall to Ottoman rule.

There are several churches and mosques built in different times during different rules, making Jajce a rather diverse town in this aspect. The Franciscan monastery of Saint Luke was completed in 1885. From 1929-41, Jajce was part of the Vrbas Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. On 29 November 1943, during the Second World War, Jajce hosted the second convention of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia, where Tito set up a provisional government and formally deprived the government in exile of its rights, the foundation for the post-war Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

At the beginning of the Bosnian War, Jajce was inhabited by people from all ethnic groups, and was situated at a junction between areas of Serb majority to the north, Bosnian Muslim majority areas to the south-east and Croatian majority areas to the south-west.

The Srebrenica massacre, also known as the Srebrenica genocide (Bosnian: Masakar u Srebrenici; Genocid u Srebrenici), was the genocidal killing, in July 1995, of more than 8,000 Muslim Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War. The killings were perpetrated by units of the Bosnian Serb Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) under the command of General Ratko Mladić. The Scorpions, a paramilitary unit from Serbia, who had been part of the Serbian Interior Ministry until 1991, also participated in the massacre. In April 1993, the United Nations declared the besieged enclave of Srebrenica—in the Drina Valley of northeastern Bosnia—a “safe area” under UN protection. However, in July 1995, UNPROFOR’s 370 Dutchbat soldiers in Srebrenica failed to prevent the town’s capture by the VRS — and the subsequent massacre.
In 2004, in a unanimous ruling on the case of Prosecutor v. Krstić, the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), located in the Hague, ruled that the massacre of the enclave’s male inhabitants constituted genocide, a crime under international law. The ruling was also upheld by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2007. The forcible transfer of between 25,000 and 30,000 Bosniak women, children and elderly which accompanied the massacre was found to be confirming evidence of the genocidal intent of members of the VRS Main Staff who orchestrated the massacre.

In 2005, Kofi Annan, then Secretary-General of the United Nations described the mass murder as the worst crime on European soil since the Second World War, and in a message to the tenth anniversary commemoration of the massacre, he wrote that, while blame lay “first and foremost with those who planned and carried out the massacre and those who assisted and harboured them”, the UN had “made serious errors of judgement, rooted in a philosophy of impartiality”, describing Srebrenica as a tragedy that would haunt the history of the UN forever.

In 2006, in the Bosnian Genocide case held before the International Court of Justice, Serbia and Montenegro was cleared of direct responsibility for, or complicity in, the massacre, but was found responsible for not doing enough to prevent the genocide and not prosecuting those responsible, in breach of the Genocide Convention.

The Preliminary List of People Missing or Killed in Srebrenica compiled by the Bosnian Federal Commission of Missing Persons contains 8,373 names. As of July 2012, 6,838 genocide victims have been identified through DNA analysis of body parts recovered from mass graves; as of July 2013, 6,066 victims have been buried at the Memorial Centre of Potočari. In April 2013, Serbian President Tomislav Nikolić officially apologised for the massacre, although he stopped short of calling it genocide. In 2013 and 2014, the Netherlands was found liable in its own supreme court and in the Hague district court of failing in its duty to prevent more than 300 of the deaths. On July 8, 2015, Russia vetoed, by request of the Republika Srpska and Serbia, a UN resolution condemning the Srebrenica massacre as genocide, Serbia calling the resolution “anti-Serb”.

On July 9, 2015, both Members of the European Parliament (EP) and House of Representatives of the U.S. Congress adopted resolutions on Srebrenica reaffirming the description of the crime as genocide.

Trebinje  is the southernmost municipality and city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Located in East Herzegovina, it is part of the Republika Srpska entity, and its population numbers 31,433 (2013). The Trebišnjica river flows through the heart of the city. The city’s old town quarter dates to the 18th-century Ottoman period, and includes the Arslanagić Bridge.

The city lies in the Trebišnjica river valley, at the foot of Leotar, in southeastern Herzegovina, some 30 km (19 mi) by road from Dubrovnik, Croatia, on the Adriatic coast. There are several mills along the river, as well as several bridges, including three in the city of Trebinje itself, as well as a historic Ottoman Arslanagic bridge nearby. The river is heavily exploited for hydro-electric energy. After it passes through the Popovo Polje area southwest of the city, the river – which always floods in the winter – naturally runs underground to the Adriatic, near Dubrovnik. For Trebinje is said that it is “the city of the sun and platan trees”, and it is one of the most beautiful cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The city is economic and cultural center of the region of Eastern Herzegovina.

Višegrad is a town and municipality in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina resting on the Drina river and in the Republika Srpska entity. The town includes the Ottoman-era Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge, an UNESCO world heritage site which was popularized by Nobel prize winning author Ivo Andrić in his novel The Bridge on the Drina. During the Bosnian War the town was one of the scenes of ethnic cleansing and massacres carried out by Bosnian Serb forces against Bosniak civilians, and it saw a drastic decline in its previously majority Bosniak population. Andrićgrad, a future tourist site dedicated to Andrić, is under construction near the bridge. Višegrad is a South Slavic toponym meaning “the upper town/castle/fort”. Višegrad is located on the river Drina, on the road from Goražde and Ustiprača towards Užice, Serbia.
Višegrad is located on the Drina river, thus part of the geographical region of Podrinje. It is also part of the historical region of Stari Vlah; the immediate area surrounding the town was historically called “Višegradski Stari Vlah”,noted as an ethnographic region in which the population was closer to Užice (on the Serbian side of the Drina) than to the surrounding areas.

In the Middle Ages, the entire area became part of the Serbian Empire, under Stefan Nemanja. In the mid-14th century it was under the rule of the Serbian župan Nikola Altomanović. Then the area was occupied by Bosnian King Tvrtko I and joined to the Bosnian Kingdom. During the reign of Serbian Emperor Stephen Dušan (r. 1331-1355), county lord (župan) Pribil held this region. Pribil allegedly founded the Dobrun monastery between 1340 and 1343. Pribil’s sons continued to build on the monastery complex, and painted the external narthex and treasury in the northern side by 1383. According to Turkish sources, in 1454, the city was conquered by the Ottoman Empire led by Osman Pasha. It remained under Ottoman rule until the Berlin Congress (1878), when Austria-Hungary took control of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge was built by the Ottoman architect and engineer Mimar Sinan for Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha in 1571. It still stands, and it is now a tourist attraction, after being inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage Site list
In 1875, Serbs from the area between Višegrad and Novi Pazar revolted and formed volunteer corps, which in 1876 fought at the Ibar.

Goražde ( pronounced [ɡǒraʒde]), is a city and municiapality in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina on the Drina river. It is located between Foča, Rogatica and Višegrad, and is administratively part of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the center of the Bosnian Podrinje Canton.
Goražde is situated on the banks of the River Drina in South East Bosnia. The city lies at the foot of the eastern slope of mountain Jahorina at a height of 345 m (1,132 ft) above sea level. The settlement is situated on the alluvial terrace in a broad valley, formed by the erosion of the River Drina. The valley is bordered on the South-East by Biserna (701 m (2,300 ft)), on the South by Samari (696 m (2,283 ft)), on the South-West by Misjak (618 m (2,028 ft)), on the West by Gubavica (410 m (1,345 ft)) and on the North by Povrsnica (420 m (1,378 ft))
The River Drina flows between these and some other hills. Its valley, which, since ancient times it has been part of the route going from the sea to the mainland (Dubrovnik – Trebinje – Gacko – Foča – the Drina valley), is the principal traffic artery in the south-eastern region of Bosnia. At Goražde this road meets another coming from Sarajevo and central Bosnia via the Jabuka Mountain pass down to the Drina valley and preceding on to Plevlje.

Jahorina ( pronounced [jâxɔrina]) is a mountain in Bosnia and Herzegovina, located near Pale in the Dinaric Alps. It borders Mount Trebević, which is another Olympic mountain. Jahorina’s highest peak, Ogorjelica, has a summit elevation of 1,916 metres (6,286 ft), making it the second-highest of Sarajevo’s mountains, after Bjelašnica at 2,067 m (6,781 ft).

Mount Jahorina hosted the women’s alpine skiing events of the 1984 Winter Olympics.

Jahorina is located 15 km (9.3 mi) from Pale and 30 km (19 mi) from Sarajevo. The international airport in Sarajevo is located 33 km (21 mi) from Jahorina, connected with the ski resort by a new motorway.

Bjelašnica (pronounced [bjělaːʃnit͡sa]) is a mountain in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is found directly to the southwest of Sarajevo, bordering Mt. Igman. Bjelašnica’s tallest peak, by which the whole mountain group got its name, rises to an elevation of 2067 meters (6782 feet). Other notable peaks are Krvavac (2061 m), Mali Vlahinja (2055 m), and Hranisava (1964 m). The Bjelašnica range is bordered by the Rakitnica in the south, the Neretva in the west, Mt Igman in the north-east and Mt Ivan in the north-west. Only at 20 minutes distance of Sarajevo, it is a popular tourist attraction for hiking and skiing.
Bjelašnica has been, in certain areas, the site of extensive combat during the 1992-’95 Siege of Sarajevo and particular areas pose a high mine risk. There are numerous trails set up and maintained by local mountain clubs that lead to the bald peaks higher up. The mountain is also popular with mountain bikers and has become recently a frequent base for paragliders.

Igman (pronounced [îɡman]) is a mountain plateau in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. Geologically, Igman is part of the Dinaric Alps and formed largely of secondary and tertiary sedimentary rock, mostly Limestone. It is located southwest of Sarajevo, bordering the Bjelašnica range in the south and west, Hadžići and Ilidža in the north, and the river Željeznica in the east. Igman’s highest point, Crni vrh, west of the Malo Polje road, at an altitude of 1,510 metres (4,954 feet), the homonym highest elevation on the east side of this road reaches an elevation of 1,502 metres (4,928 feet). Most of Igman is covered with mixed forest with local pastures (f.i.:Veliko Polje: Large Field, Malo Polje: Small Field). Igman was the location of the lowest recorded temperature in the region, −43 °C (−45 °F). When the weather is right, from Igman mountaineers can see all the way to Montenegro and the Adriatic Sea. Igman has been the site of extensive combat during the 1992-95 Siege of Sarajevo and certain areas, in particular the surroundings of former front lines, feature a high mine risk.

Trebević is a mountain in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is found directly to the southeast of Sarajevo, territory of East Sarajevo city, bordering Jahorina mountain. Trebević is 1627 meters (5338 ft) tall, making it the second shortest of the Sarajevo mountains.
During the Middle Ages, Trebević was known as Zlatni Do. During the 1984 Winter Olympics Trebević, like the other Sarajevo mountains, was used for a number of Olympic events, such as bobsledding. During the Siege of Sarajevo, Trebević took on a darker role as its elevations proved ideal positions for besieging artillery and the mountain became a key fighting ground.
Trebević today is not as important of a tourist destination as Igman or Bjelašnica, largely due to the heavy fighting that took place in the early 1990s. Still, most of the land mines are now cleared. There are numerous hotels, mountaineering homes, and other such structures on Trebević and the immediate area.
Trebević has been the main excursion site of Sarajevo citizens due to the favorable geographical position, climate and the beauty of the nature. The biological diversity is among the highest and it is extraordinary to find such a phenomenon near the hearth of the big city. On the 9th of April 2014, Sarajevo Canton Assembly, announced Trebević as a protected area, in order to conserve and improve each element of the geographical and biological diversity.

Lukomir is a village in Bosnia and Herzegovina situated in the municipality of Konjic. Lukomir is the highest altitude and most remote village in the entire country.

Lukomir sits at an altitude of 1,495 m on the Bjelašnica mountain. Stećci originating from the 14th and 15th century exist at the village and suggest that it was inhabited for hundreds of years. The homes in the area are made of stone while their roofs are composed of wooden tiles. The Rakitnica canyon is located nearby and is said to be the origin of a dragon by local folklore.

The Bosnian pyramids are a pseudo-archaeological claim promoted by author Semir Osmanagić, that a cluster of natural hills in central Bosnia and Herzegovina are the largest human-made ancient pyramids on Earth. The hills are located near the town of Visoko, northwest of Sarajevo. Visočica hill, where the old town of Visoki was once sited, came to international attention in October 2005, following a news-media campaign by Osmanagić and his supporters. Osmanagić states that he has found tunnels, stone blocks and ancient mortar, which he has suggested once covered the Visočica structure. He opened excavations in 2006 which have reshaped the hill, making it look like a stepped pyramid. Geologists, archeologists and other scientists have however concluded, after analysis of the site, its known history, and the excavations, that the hills are natural formations known as flatirons and that there are no signs of human construction involved. The European Association of Archaeologists released a statement calling the pyramid hypothesis a “cruel hoax”.

Seven leading European archaeologists have issued a European Association of Archaeologists Declaration stating: We, the undersigned professional archaeologists from all parts of Europe, wish to protest strongly at the continuing support by the Bosnian authorities for the so-called “pyramid” project being conducted on hills at and near Visoko. This scheme is a cruel hoax on an unsuspecting public and has no place in the world of genuine science. It is a waste of scarce resources that would be much better used in protecting the genuine archaeological heritage and is diverting attention from the pressing problems that are affecting professional archaeologists in Bosnia-Herzegovina on a daily basis.

The Declaration was signed by Hermann Parzinger, President of German Archaeological Institute in Berlin, Willem Willems, Inspector General of Rijksinspectie Archeologie in The Hague, Jean-Paul Demoule, President of the Institut nationale de recherches archéologiques préventives (INRAP) in Paris, Romuald Schild, Director of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, Vassil Nikolov, Director of the Institute of Archaeology of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in Sofia, Anthony Harding, President of the European Association of Archaeologists, Mike Heyworth, Director of the Council for British Archaeology in York. Osmanagić’s assertions, widely reported in the mass media, have been categorically refuted by a number of experts, who have accused him of promoting pseudo-scientific notions and damaging archaeological sites with his excavations. Amar Karapuš, a curator at the Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, said “When I first read about the pyramids I thought it was a very funny joke. I just couldn’t believe that anyone in the world could believe this.” Garrett Fagan of Penn State University is quoted as saying “They should not be allowed to destroy genuine sites in the pursuit of these delusions. It’s as if someone were given permission to bulldoze Stonehenge to find secret chambers of lost ancient wisdom underneath.” Enver Imamović of the University of Sarajevo, a former director of the National Museum of Sarajevo, concerned that the excavations will damage historic sites such as the medieval royal capital Visoki, said that the excavations would “irreversibly destroy a national treasure”. Excavations by archaeologists not related to the Foundation in the summer of 2008 uncovered medieval artifacts and led to renewed calls for the government to cancel Osmanagić’s digging permits. One of his former employees, Nadija Nukic, told a Bosnian newspaper that carvings on stones that Osmanagić characterizes as dating from ancient times were not present when the stones were first uncovered but were later inscribed by his team, an accusation that Osmanagić denies. Despite being completely disowned by the scientific community, Semir Osmanagić was still pursuing his project in 2011. His excavations were still funded by local authorities, and the “pyramids” were visited by school children and passed off to them as being part of their Bosnian heritage. Prehistory Boston University’s Curtis Runnels, an expert in prehistoric Greece and the Balkans states that, “Between 27,000 and 12,000 years ago, the Balkans were locked in the last Glacial maximum, a period of very cold and dry climate with glaciers in some of the Dinaric Alps. The only occupants were Upper Paleolithic hunters and gatherers who left behind open-air camp sites and traces of occupation in caves. These remains consist of simple stone tools, hearths, and remains of animals and plants that were consumed for food. These people did not have the tools or skills to engage in the construction of monumental architecture.” Archaeology In a letter to the editor of The Times on 25 April 2006, Professor Anthony Harding, president of the European Association of Archaeologists, visited the site and reported: “We saw areas of natural stone (a breccia), with fissures and cracks; but no sign of anything that looked like archaeology”. Harding referred to Osmanagić’s theories as “wacky” and “absurd” and expressed concern that insufficient safeguards were in place to protect Bosnia’s “rich heritage” from “looting and unmonitored or unauthorised development”

Sarajevo (Bosnian pronunciation: [sǎrajeʋo]) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with an estimated population of 369,534. The Sarajevo metropolitan area, including Sarajevo, East Sarajevo and surrounding municipalities, is home to 688,354 inhabitants. Moreover, it is also the capital of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, the capital of the Republika Srpska entity, and the center of the Sarajevo Canton.

Nestled within the greater Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of Southeastern Europe and the Balkans. Sarajevo is the leading political, social and cultural center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a prominent center of culture in the Balkans, with its region-wide influence in entertainment, media, fashion, and the arts. The city is famous for its traditional cultural and religious diversity, with adherents of Islam, Orthodoxy, Judaism and Catholicism coexisting there for centuries. Due to its long and rich history of religious and cultural variety, Sarajevo is sometimes called the “Jerusalem of Europe” or “Jerusalem of the Balkans”. It was, until late in the 20th century, the only major European city to have a mosque, Catholic church, Orthodox church and synagogue within the same neighborhood. A regional center in education, the city is also home to the Balkans’ first institution of tertiary education in the form of an Islamic polytechnic called the Saraybosna Osmanlı Medrese, today part of the University of Sarajevo.

Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century. Sarajevo has attracted international attention several times throughout its history. In 1885, Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, following San Francisco. In 1914, it was the site of the assassination of the Archduke of Austria that sparked World War I. Seventy years later, it hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics. For nearly four years, from 1992 to 1996, the city suffered the longest siege of a city in the history of modern warfare (1,425 days long) during the Bosnian War. Sarajevo has been undergoing post-war reconstruction, and is the fastest growing city in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The travel guide series, Lonely Planet, has named Sarajevo as the 43rd best city in the world, and in December 2009 listed Sarajevo as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010. In 2011, Sarajevo was nominated to be the European Capital of Culture in 2014 and will be hosting the European Youth Olympic Festival in 2017. Sarajevo is also a metropolis due to being the most important and influential city in the whole country.

Sarajevo (Bosnian pronunciation: [sǎrajeʋo]) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with an estimated population of 369,534. The Sarajevo metropolitan area, including Sarajevo, East Sarajevo and surrounding municipalities, is home to 688,354 inhabitants. Moreover, it is also the capital of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina entity, the capital of the Republika Srpska entity, and the center of the Sarajevo Canton.

Nestled within the greater Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of Southeastern Europe and the Balkans. Sarajevo is the leading political, social and cultural center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a prominent center of culture in the Balkans, with its region-wide influence in entertainment, media, fashion, and the arts. The city is famous for its traditional cultural and religious diversity, with adherents of Islam, Orthodoxy, Judaism and Catholicism coexisting there for centuries. Due to its long and rich history of religious and cultural variety, Sarajevo is sometimes called the “Jerusalem of Europe” or “Jerusalem of the Balkans”. It was, until late in the 20th century, the only major European city to have a mosque, Catholic church, Orthodox church and synagogue within the same neighborhood. A regional center in education, the city is also home to the Balkans’ first institution of tertiary education in the form of an Islamic polytechnic called the Saraybosna Osmanlı Medrese, today part of the University of Sarajevo.

Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century. Sarajevo has attracted international attention several times throughout its history. In 1885, Sarajevo was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, following San Francisco. In 1914, it was the site of the assassination of the Archduke of Austria that sparked World War I. Seventy years later, it hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics. For nearly four years, from 1992 to 1996, the city suffered the longest siege of a city in the history of modern warfare (1,425 days long) during the Bosnian War. Sarajevo has been undergoing post-war reconstruction, and is the fastest growing city in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The travel guide series, Lonely Planet, has named Sarajevo as the 43rd best city in the world, and in December 2009 listed Sarajevo as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010. In 2011, Sarajevo was nominated to be the European Capital of Culture in 2014 and will be hosting the European Youth Olympic Festival in 2017. Sarajevo is also a metropolis due to being the most important and influential city in the whole country.

Vjetrenica ( which means “wind cave” or “blowhole”) is the largest and most important cave in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and one of the most important caves in the Dinaric Alps mountain range, which is famous worldwide for its karstic and speleological riches. It is located in the Popovo field in Ravno, West Herzegovina in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vjetrenica is located in Popovo Polje ( meaning priest’s field, where polje stands for karstic plain), which is itself located in a southernmost regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, West Herzegovina, near the Adriatic coast.

Its entrance is near the village of Zavala, in west – south-western corner of polje. In the warmer parts of the year a strong blast of cold air blows from its entrance, which is very attractive in the middle of the rocky, hot and waterless terrain. Popovo Polje is one of the largest polje (karstic plain) in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the world, famous for its karstic phenomenons and features, and particularly for its Trebišnjica River, which flows through the polje as largest sinking river (also losing stream, or influent stream) the world, as well as the Vjetrenica cave system, located to the west/south-western parts of the valley. The cave has been explored and described to a total of about 6.7 km in length; of this the main channel is about 2.47 km long.

It runs from the edge of Popovo Polje to the south, and on the basis of analysis of the terrain, geologists have predicted that Vjetrenica could stretch right to the Adriatic Sea in the Republic of Croatia, 15–20 km away from its entrance. Along with the hydrological arguments, this assumption is also supported by the “unnatural” end of Vjetrenica in the form of a huge heap of stone blocks that have caved in.

Vjetrenica is the richest cave in the world in terms of subterranean biodiversity: among more than two hundred different species are registered in it, almost hundred are troglophiles, a great number of them are narrow endemic, 15 are stenoendemic, and about 37 were discovered and described in Vjetrenica for the first time.

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